Indians had mastered a vaccination technique for small pox way before the Europeans did. An year-old live smallpox matter was used for the vaccination. British doctor J Z Holwell described how safe and effective the procedure was, in his book .
The "cowpox" technique of vaccination was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1798. The British is believed to have banned the Indian technique after the "cowpox method" gained popularity in Europe, in spite of the fact that it was less effective.