Wednesday, November 21, 2007

Was Ram Born on 10th January 5114 BCE ?

Bharath Gyan, a Chennai-based NGO engaged in research on India's traditions and culture, has produced a report which states that Lord Ram did indeed exist, and even put a date on his birth: January 10, 5114 BCE (Before the Christian Era).

The Colonial British historians who came to shape our thoughts about 200 years back called Ramayana and other texts of India as mythological.

How right were they in their branding Indian Itihaasa as mythological? In the last decade or so, the scientific advancements that have taken place, have helped scientific historians revisit the text for historical proofs.

Bharath Gyan has researched information on Rama from a rational, scientific and logical perspective to try and understand if Rama has in reality been a historical person.


In the Ramayana text the family tree of Rama starts tracing his lineage right from Kashyapa Aditi to his times and after his times down to the times of Mahabaratha. This means at least 50 generations on either sides of Rama have been named and their achievements mentioned.

These names and their achievements have been cross verified in other literary texts of other periods of time when those kings who were the ancestors or successors to Rama lived. Such detailed lineage on either side along with their correlation in other texts would be possible if the persons mentioned therein are historical.

In the Tamil text Aga na nooru which belong to the Sangam literature period Rama is mentioned by name in the 70th song of Neithal Thinai. This indicates that he was not only popular in his region but was discussed by the pre-historic tamil scholars also.

During the Mughal times Begum Hamida Banu, wife of Humayun and the mother of Akbar prepared the Persian version of the Ramayana as it was a historical text of her land. Akbar prepared one more Ramayana during his times as Emperor. These texts are richly painted and are today in various museums of the world. These were not prepared as religious text but as historical texts of the land they ruled.


Ramayana as a text is geographically very correct. Every site on Rama’s route is still identifiable and has continuing traditions in the form of temples to commemorate Rama’s visit.

In those remote days no author had the travel facility to concoct a geographically credible story and building it into local folklore.


Can we give a date to Rama?

The concept of describing dates astronomically has been a practice in India since days bygone and thus lot of Indian literature are embedded with such astronomical data.

This is a technique of charting the future or past sky using a scientific tool. This tool helps to arrive at planetary positions given a date in future or past and vice-versa i.e. given a set of planetary configurations, arrive at the date either in future or in the past.

Such tools are collectively called Planetarium software. There are probably over 50 such different software available. Each software can be used specifically for a particular application, like, plotting the current night sky chart, predicting eclispes and the likes. When spacecrafts are launched to visit far-off planets like Jupiter and Saturn, it would take a travel time of well over 12 years for the spacecraft to reach these planets. This software helps determine orbital positions of the planets when the spacecraft reaches their orbits. For this, a high level of precision is required in the software.

Unlike any other civilization so far, the literature of the Indian civilization is characterised for being embedded with night sky observations. Feeding the observations of the planetary configurations into the Planetarium software gives us the English calender dates when these configurations could have occured in the past. When these dates are logically arranged along with the events, it helps us to scientifically assign dates to events mentioned in Indian legends and historical texts, and validate them.

Thus the astronomical remains left behind in our literature can be analysed scientifically to arrive at historic dates for various events. This approach is parallel to archaeology where physical remains are analysed to arrive at historic dates and hence gives rise to a new branch of scientific dating which may be called Archaeo-astronomy. Various modern day researchers have made use of this software to arrive at such historic dates for various events described in the Indian literature.

They have collated the outputs of such credible work which are worthy of standing up to cross validation. In the context of the Historicity of Rama, the works of Shri. Pushkar Bhatnagar, as brought out in the book "Dating the Era of Lord Ram" form the basis of what is presented here to understand the dates of the events in Rama’s lifetime .

This particular text, Ramayana, when analysed from a scientific perspective using such Archeo-Astronomy techniques, shows tremendous internal consistency between the events described astronomically and the storyline based elapse time between those events. This method puts forth the below mentioned dates for the events that occur in the Ramanaya legend.

Sri Rama Navami - Birth day 10th January 5114 BCE

Birth of Bharatha 11th January 5114 BCE

Pre coronation eve 4th January 5089 BCE Khar

Dushan episode 7th October 5077 BCE

Vali Vadham 3rd April 5076 BCE

Hanuman's Visit to Lanka 12th September 5076 BCE

Hanuman's Return from Lanka 14th September 5076 BCE

Army March to Lanka 12th September 5076 BCE

It is indeed noteworthy to observe that these dates are internally consistent

While the purpose of this software was different, it has now thrown open a potential for a new branch of science which can be named Archeo Astronomy as just like archeology it can help date events as described in literature. This software has now become declassified and is available for public use. This modern method of – Archeo Astronomy is still not accepted or practiced by traditional historians as it requires knowledge of traditional astronomy, mathematics as well modern day sky chart reading techniques all of which go into the realm of science.

This branch of archeology requires and will create a new breed of archeologists and has the potential to date more events from our vast store of literature than traditional archeology can.

Friday, October 12, 2007

Taj Mahal a Vedic temple?

We all know the popular story behind the Taj Mahal. It goes like this..

It was built by the Moghul Emperor, Shah Jahan, in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal,designed by Ustad Isa of Iran, completed in 22 years (1631 to 1653) by 20,000 artisans brought to India from all over the world.

Now listen to the alternate story(theory?)

Taj Mahal is not Queen Mumtaz Mahal's tomb, but an ancient Hindu temple palace of Lord Shiva (then known as Tejo Mahalaya), worshipped by the Rajputs of Agra city.

This theory was proposed by Professor P.N. Oak. He has put forward evidences to support his theory.

P. N. Oak (born 1917), full name Purushottam Nagesh Oak, is a Maharashtrian Brahmin historian associated with the Hindutva movement. Because of his association with the Hindutva movement, many consider his theory as manifestations of anti-Muslim sentiment.

In the course of his research, Oak discovered that the Shiva temple palace had been usurped by Shah Jahan from then Maharaja of Jaipur, Jai Singh. Shah Jahan then remodelled the palace into his wife's memorial.

In his own court chronicle, Badshahnama, Shah Jahan apparently admits that an exceptionally beautiful grand mansion in Agra was taken from Jai Singh for Mumtaz's burial. The ex-Maharaja of Jaipur is
said to retain in his secret collection two orders from Shah Jahan for the surrender of the Taj building.The use of captured temples and mansions as a burial place for dead courtiers and royalty was a common practice among Muslim rulers. For example, Hamayun, Akbar, Etmud-ud-Daula and Safdarjung are all buried in such mansions.

Here is a copy of a page of the Badshahnama This is from the Government of India's National Archives, and available from the instituional libraries dealing with the medieval history of India.

Had Shahjahan really built the Taj Mahal as a wonder mausoleum, history would have recorded a specific date on which she was ceremoniously buried in the Taj Mahal. No such date is ever mentioned. This important missing detail decisively exposes the falsity of the Tajmahal legend.

Even the year of Mumtaz's death is unknown. It is variously speculated to be 1629, 1630, 1631 or 1632. Had she deserved a fabulous burial, as is claimed, the date of her death had not been a matter of much speculation. In an harem teeming with 5000 women it was difficult to keep track of dates of death. Apparently the date of Mumtaz's death was so insignificant an event, as not to merit any special notice. Who would then build a Taj for her burial?

The usual explanation that the term Taj Mahal derives from Mumtaz Mahal is illogical in at least two respects. Firstly, her name was never Mumtaz Mahal but Mumtaz-ul-Zamani,' he writes. 'Secondly, one cannot omit the first three letters from a woman's name to derive the remainder as the name for the building.

Oak also points out a number of design and architectural inconsistencies that support the belief that the Taj Mahal is a typical Hindu temple rather than a mausoleum.Many rooms in the Taj Mahal have remained sealed since Shah Jahan's time, and are still inaccessible to the public. Oak asserts they contain a headless statue of Shiva and other objects commonly used for worship rituals in Hindu temples.

Fearing political backlash, Indira Gandhi's government tried to have Oak's book withdrawn from the bookstores, and threatened the Indian publisher of the first edition with dire consequences.

The only way to really validate or discredit Oak's research is to open the sealed rooms of the Taj Mahal, and allow international experts to investigate.

On July 14 2000 the Supreme Court in New Delhi dismissed a petition that sought to force a declaration that a Hindu king built Taj Mahal, as P.N. Oak has claimed. The court reprimanded the petitionersaying he had a "bee in his bonnet" about the Taj.

In 2005 a similar petition was dismissed by the Allahabad High Court. This case was brought by Amar Nath Mishra, a social worker and preacher who says that the Taj Mahal was built by the Hindu King Parmar Dev in 1196.

Recommended Read:
Photographic Evidence

Thursday, October 4, 2007

Aryan Invasion Theory (Myth?)

One of the most interesting puzzles in archaeology, and one that hasn't been completely solved yet, concerns the story of the supposed Aryan invasion of the Indian subcontinent.

The story goes like this:
The Aryans were a tribe of Indo-European-speaking, horse-riding nomads living in the arid steppes of Eurasia. Sometime around 1700 BC, the Aryans invaded the ancient urban civilizations of the Indus Valley, and destroyed that culture. The Indus Valley civilizations were far more civilized than any horse-back nomad, having had a written language, farming capabilities, and led a truly urban existence. Some 1,200 years after the supposed invasion, the descendants of the Aryans, so they say, wrote the classic Indian literature called the Vedic manuscripts.

Adolph Hitler and the Aryan/Dravidian Myth
Adolph Hitler twisted the theories of Gustaf Kossinna (1858-1931), to put forward the Aryans as a master race of Indo-Europeans, who were supposed to be Nordic in appearance and directly ancestral to the Germans.

These Nordic invaders were defined as directly opposite to native south Asian peoples, called Dravidians, who were supposed to have been darker-skinned.

Archeology and the Aryans
During the 19th century, many European missionaries and imperialists traveled the world seeking conquests and converts. One country which saw a great deal of this kind of exploration was India (including what is now Pakistan). Some of the missionaries were also antiquarians by avocation, and one such person was the French missionary Abbé Dubois (1770-1848). His manuscript on Indian culture makes some unusual reading today; Abbé tried to fit in what he understood of Noah and the Great Flood with what he was reading in the great literature of India. It was not a good fit, but he did describe Indian civilization at the time, and provided some pretty bad translations of the literature

It was the Abbé's work, translated into English by the British East India Company in 1897 and with a laudatory preface by German archaeologist Max Muller, that formed the basis of the Aryan invasion story--not the Vedic manuscripts themselves.

Scholars had long noted the similarities between Sanskrit, the ancient language in which the classical Vedic texts are written, and other Latin-based languages such as French and Italian. And when the first excavations at the large Indus Valley site of Mohenjo Daro were completed early in the 20th century, and it was recognized as a truly advanced civilization, a civilization not mentioned in the Vedic manuscripts, among some circles this was considered ample evidence that an invasion of people related to the peoples of Europe had occurred, destroying the earlier civilization and creating the second great civilization of India.

Aryas means Noble
It turns out that there are serious problems with this argument. There are no references to an invasion in the Vedic manuscripts; and the Sanskrit word "Aryas" means "noble", not a superior cultural group. Secondly, recent archaeological evidence suggests that the Indus civilization was shut down by droughts combined with a devasting flood, not a violent confrontation. Recent archaeological evidence also shows that many of the so-called "Indus River" valley peoples lived in the Sarasvati River, which is mentioned in the Vedic manuscripts as a homeland. There is no biological or archaeological evidence of a massive invasion of people of a different race.

The most recent studies concerning the Aryan/Dravidian myth include language studies, which have attempted to decipher and thereby discover the origins of the Indus script, and the Vedic manuscripts, to determine the origins of the Sanskrit in which it was written. Excavations at the site of Gola Dhoro in Gujarat suggest the site was abandoned quite suddenly, although why that may occurred is yet to be determined.

Born from a colonial mentality, corrupted by a Nazi propaganda machine, the Aryan invasion theory is finally undergoing radical reassessment by south Asian archaeologists and their colleagues, using the Vedic documents themselves, additional linguistic studies, and physical evidence revealed through archaeological excavations. The Indus valley cultural history is an ancient and complex one. Only time will teach us what role if any an Indo-European invasion took in the history; but it seems clear that a collapse of the Indus civilization did not occur.

Wednesday, October 3, 2007

Subhas Chandra Bose considered invading India with the help of Nazi troops.

In 1941,having escaped imprisonment at home,Subhas Chandra Bose reached Afghanistan by assuming the guise of a Pashtun insurance agent ("Ziaudddin"). He then traveled to Moscow on the passport of an Italian nobleman "Count Orlando Mazzotta". From Moscow, he reached Rome, and from there he traveled to Germany, where he instituted the Special Bureau for India under Adam von Trott zu Solz, broadcasting on the German-sponsored Azad Hind Radio. He founded the Free India Centre in Berlin, and created the Indian Legion (consisting of some 4500 soldiers) out of Indian prisoners of war who had previously fought for the British in North Africa prior to their capture by Axis forces. The Indian Legion was attached to the Wehrmacht, and later transferred to the Waffen SS, its members swore their allegiance to both Hitler and Bose to secure India's independence.

He was also, however, prepared to envisage an invasion of India via the U.S.S.R. by Nazi troops, spearheaded by the Azad Hind Legion; many have questioned his judgment here, as it seems unlikely that the Germans could have been easily persuaded to leave after such an invasion, which might also have resulted in an Axis victory in the War.The lack of interest shown by Hitler in the cause of Indian independence eventually caused Bose to become disillusioned with Hitler and he decided to leave Nazi Germany in 1943.

He later established the Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind Fauj with Japanese aid.

Sunday, September 30, 2007

Medicinal Properties of Rudraksha

The Rudraksha is a large evergreen broad-leaved tree which grows in the area from the Gangetic Plain to the foothills of the Himalayas. Rudraksha trees are also found in middle areas of Nepal. Rudraksha seeds are covered by an outer shell of blue color when fully ripe, and for this reason are also known as blueberry beads.

Rudraksha beads contains carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and trace elements in combined form. The percentage compositions of their gaseous elements was determined by C-H-N Analyzer and by Gas chromatography.The result shows that Rudraksha beads consist of 50.031 % carbon, 0.95% nitrogen, 17.897% hydrogen and 30.53% oxygen.

Rudrakasha beads have several amazing powers due to their electromagnetic character.

Electrical Properties: The human body can be considered as a complex Bio Electronic Circuit consisting of the whole of Nervous System and all other organs residing inside the human body. Number of Electrical impulses are generated by the human body due to different reflex actions taking place, continuous pumping of heart for blood circulation, Neurons and nervous system etc. The ability to send out subtle electrical impulses & Inductive vibrations and act as a Dielectric as in a capacitor to store electrical energy. This is termed as Bioelectricity. All the work of our sense organs depends on the subtle flow of Bioelectricity current. Thus all the actions our body performs are effectively controlled. The Bioelectric current is produced due to the difference in the energy levels of different body parts. This smooth flow of Bioelectric current causes the properly controlled functioning of the body parts.

Bio Electric Circuit-There is a third element in the Body and Brain called the Bio Electronic circuit Interface, that of the mind. Any activity that can produce stress or maladjustment can throw the streamlined activity, the Electronic circuit of the Body& Mind out of gear. Human beings and all living beings are prone to stress continuously in the continuous fight for survival and prosperity.

In modern age with intense competition the Stress levels have increased tremendously. Almost every individual has problems of Stress and Stress related ailments like insomnia, alcoholism, depression, Maladjustments, heart diseases, skin diseases etc. Any Doctor will confirm that almost 95% of the ailments are Psychosomatic or Stress related (i.e.) originating from Mind. When there is Stress or Maladjustment corresponding Stress signals are sent to the Central Nervous systems, there is an increased activity or abnormal of Neurons and Neuro transmitters. The magnitude of change will depend on the cause and specific case. When such a thing occurs and it occurs continuously, streamlined flow of electrical signals throughout the Mind-Body interface is disrupted and it makes us feel uncomfortable and we are not able to act with our full efficiency. Our Blood circulation becomes Non-ideal and we feel various illnesses. Unfortunately this happens all the time.

Rudraksha beads act as a Stabilizing Anchor. Rudraksha beads' electrical property can be broadly categorized into:

Resistance: There is continuous and subtle flow of bioelectrical signal throughout the body due to potential difference between parts of the Body. Rudraksha beads of particular Mukhis or Facets have a definitive Factor of Resistance. It is measured in Ohms. When these beads resist the flow of bioelectrical impulses a specific ampere of current flow is generated depending on the factor of resistance. This acts in tandem with heartbeat, streamlining it and sending out specific impulses to brain. These impulses stimulate certain positive brain chemicals. Making us feel better, more confidants, poised and more energetic. It has been observed that specific Mukhis or Facets of Rudraksha beads send out specific signals acting on a particular brain chemical and thereby by effecting specific positive changes in personality. It is well proven that the state of mind and our personality is governed almost completely by the Brain, it’s functioning and that of Central Nervous System

Capacitance or the Dielectric Properties -Rudraksha beads act as dielectric (i.e.) as a storage of electrical energy. This property of Rudraksha makes it capable in stabilizing and anchoring the Bioelectric current. The values are measured in units of Farad. This property is very helpful in controlling hyperactivity, palpitations of heart, streamlining heartbeat etc. Due to stress when there is increased physical activity heart beats faster and the overall activity of hormones and nervous system increases. This causes increased energy levels or increase in potential difference. As a result of this the magnitude of the Bioelectric Current increases. Rudraksha beads acting as Dielectric store this excess Bioelectric Energy, thereby streamlining the overall activity to Normalcy.

Inductance:Rudraksha beads by it have permanent magnetic properties. They have been observed to send out Inductive vibrations with frequencies measured in units of Henry (Volt Seconds/Ampere). This perhaps is the reason why people have felt better even when Rudraksha beads do not touch them physically.

Magnetic Properties:Rudraksha beads have Both Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic with the most important property of Dynamic Polarity We all are most probably aware of the beneficial healing properties of magnets. Magnetic Healing is becoming extremely popular off late and everyone who have been using magnets for healing have been getting the benefits and found overall betterment and rejuvenation. Rudraksha beads retain most of the properties of Magnets but it is unparallel in one aspect, that of the ability to change it's polarity or the Property of Dynamic Polarity. The basic way of healing is based on the fact that the when the passage of arteries and veins which carry blood to and from Heart to all the parts of the body is blocked or reduced due to variety of reasons, various illnesses creep. Blood carries oxygen and energy to various parts of the body and cleanses it off waste materials. Any disruption of the smooth flow of Blood circulation is bound to cause illnesses.

We experience pain and uneasiness due to improper blood circulation. Every cell in the blood as well as the Arteries and veins are charged either positively or negatively. Magnets have the poles Positive (+) and Negative (-).When magnets are passed on various parts of the body the opposite poles of the magnets and that of cells get attracted and there is an expansion of the passage .The Arteries and veins open up to facilitate streamlined blood circulation. When there is a streamlining of blood circulation most of the illnesses get automatically healed and we feel better and rejuvenated.But with magnets the polarity is fixed. When magnets are brought near a particular part of the body it opens up only those sections of veins and arteries where there is a matching of polarities hence complete healing and streamlining of blood circulation cannot be ensured. We experience healing and feel better but we can still go much further with Dynamic Polarity of Rudraksha beads.

Dyanamic Polarity-Rudraksha has the ability to-Change it's polarity. This in turn is by virtue of its property, Diamagnetism. Diamagnetism is termed as the ability of any material to acquire temporary magnetic property in presence of an external magnetic field. The polarity of the charge induced is opposite to that of the external field inducing the charge. Blood circulation and heart beat automatically induces a magnetic field around the body and particularly the heart Region. Bioelectricty automatically gives raise to Biomagnetism Depending on the polarity of the Induced magnetic field. Rudraksha bead acquires a polarity that is opposite of the inducing field. As a result of this the opening up the passages of Arteries and Veins are far better than that of magnets. Much better healing and rejuvenation is experienced.

Various Literatures mention of powerful Anti Ageing properties of Rudraksha beads.This is mainly because of the Dynamic Polarity of the Rudraksha a bead thus the healing powers of Rudraksha are far superior to that of Magnets. In some sense Rudraksha beads can be termed to have some additional life or Intelligence as against Magnets.

Friday, September 28, 2007


Man's first known trip to the dentist occurred as early as 9,000 years ago, when at least 9 people living in a Neolithic village in Pakistan had holes drilled into their molars and survived the procedure

"This is certainly the first case of drilling a person's teeth," said David Frayer, professor of anthropology at the University of Kansas and the lead author of the report. "But even more significant, this practice lasted some 1,500 years and was a tradition at this site. It wasn't just a sporadic event."

All 9 of the Mehrgarh dental patients were adults — 4 females, 2 males, and 3 individuals of unknown gender — and ranged in age from about 20 to over 40. Most of the drilling was done on the chewing surfaces of their molars, in both the upper and lower jaws, probably using a flint point attached to a bow that made a high-speed drill, the researchers say. Concentric ridges carved by the drilling device were found inside the holes.

The dentists may have been highly skilled artisans at Mehrgarh, where beads of imported lapis lazuli, turquoise, and carnelian were found drilled with holes even smaller than the ones in the nine individuals. Discovered among the beads were finely tipped drill heads.

None of the individuals with drilled teeth appears to have come from a special tomb or sanctuary, indicating that the oral health care they received was available to anyone in the society.

The New York Times

Jana Gana Mana Controversy

Controversy exists regarding the appropriateness of Jana Gana Mana as the national anthem of an independent India. The poem was composed in December 1911, precisely at the time of the Coronation Durbar of George V, and is a paean in praise of "the overlord of India's destiny". The composition was first sung during a convention of the then loyalist Indian National Congress in Calcutta on Dec. 27, 1911 It was sung on the second day of the convention, and the agenda of that day devoted itself to a loyal welcome of George V on his visit to India. The event was reported thus in the Indian press:

"The Bengali poet Babu Rabindranath Tagore sang a song composed by him specially to welcome the Emperor." (Statesman, Dec. 28, 1911)

"The proceedings began with the singing by Babu Rabindranath Tagore of a song specially composed by him in honour of the Emperor." (Englishman, Dec. 28, 1911)

"When the proceedings of the Indian National Congress began on Wednesday 27th December 1911, a Bengali song in welcome of the Emperor was sung. A resolution welcoming the Emperor and Empress was also adopted unanimously." (Indian, Dec. 29, 1911)

The belief gained ground that the poem had been written in honour of the visiting monarch. Others aver that the newspaper reports cited above were misguided, the confusion arising since a different song, written in Hindi by Rambhuj Chaudhary, was sung on the same occasion in praise of the monarch. However, the two poems were written in different languages; Tagore already enjoyed much fame in India, and newspaper reports are both consistent and categorical on the point of Tagore having himself sung his composition on the occasion.

Other explanations for the motivations that informed the creation of the poem have been proposed. On a visit to India, the poet Yeats received a visit from an Indian admirer who was also, in Yeats' words, "an Indian devotee" of Tagore. In a letter to a lady friend, Yeats quoted this unnamed devotee as giving him a 'strictly off the records' version of events dealing with the writing of Jana Gana Mana. That version, as presented in 1968 by the Indian Express newspaper, was this:

"He (Tagore) got up very early in the morning and wrote a very beautiful poem.... When he came down, he said to one of us, 'Here is a poem which I have written. It is addressed to God, but give it to Congress people. It will please them."

Thus, Tagore is said to have written the poem in honour of God. In a letter to Pulin Behari Sen, Tagore himself wrote:

"A certain high official in His Majesty's service, who was also my friend, had requested that I write a song of felicitation towards the Emperor. The request simply amazed me. It caused a great stir in my heart. In response to that great mental turmoil, I pronounced the victory in Jana Gana Mana of that Bhagya Vidhata [ed. God of Destiny] of India who has from age after age held steadfast the reins of India's chariot through rise and fall, through the straight path and the curved. That Lord of Destiny, that Reader of the Collective Mind of India, that Perennial Guide, could never be George V, George VI, or any other George. Even my official friend understood this about the song. After all, even if his admiration for the crown was excessive, he was not lacking in simple common sense."

In 2005, there were calls to delete the word "Sindh" and substitute it with the word Kashmir. The argument was that Sindh was no longer a part of India, having become part of Pakistan as a result of the Partition of 1947. Opponents of this proposal hold that the word "Sindh" refers to the Indus and to Sindhi culture and people which are an integral part of India's cultural fabric. The Supreme Court of India refused to tamper with the national anthem and the wording remains unchanged.

Why Was Gandhi Never Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

Mohandas Gandhi was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947 and, finally, a few days before he was murdered in January 1948, but but was never awarded the prize.

1937 - Robert Cecil
1938 - Nansen International Office for Refugees
1947 - Friends Service Council, American Friends Service Committee

The omission has been publicly regretted by later members of the Nobel Committee; when the Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi".

Recommended Links :

Wednesday, September 26, 2007


Did Ancient Hindus perfect the science of cloning or were Kauravas products of a technology that modern science has not even (re)developed yet?
(or is it just fiction?)

According to the description in Mahabharata (Adi Parva/Sambhava Parva), the Kauravas were created by splitting the single embryo into 100 parts and growing each part in a separate kund or container.

"Vaisampayana said, 'One day Gandhari entertained with respectful attention the great Dwaipayana who came to her abode, exhausted with hunger and fatigue. Gratified with Gandhari's hospitality, the Rishi gave her the boon she asked for, viz., that she should have a century of sons each equal unto her lord in strength and accomplishments.
Some time after Gandhari conceived and she bore the burden in her womb for two long years without being delivered. And she was greatly afflicted at this. It was then that she heard that Kunti had brought forth a son whose splendour was like unto the morning sun. Impatient of the period of gestation which had prolonged so long, and deprived of reason by grief, she struck her womb with great violence without the knowledge of her husband. And thereupon came out of her womb, after two years' growth, a hard mass of flesh like unto an iron ball.
When she was about to throw it away, Dwaipayana, learning everything by his spiritual powers, promptly came there, and that first of ascetics beholding that ball of flesh, addressed the daughter of Suvala thus, 'What hast thou done?' Gandhari, without endeavouring to disguise her feelings, addressed the Rishi and said, 'Having heard that Kunti had brought forth a son like unto Surya in splendour, I struck in grief at my womb. Thou hadst, O Rishi, granted me the boon that I should have a hundred sons, but here is only a ball of flesh for those hundred sons!' Vyasa then said, 'Daughter of Suvala, it is even so. But my words can never be futile. I have not spoken an untruth even in jest. I need not speak of other occasion.
Let a hundred pots full of clarified butter be brought instantly, and let them be placed at a concealed spot. In the meantime, let cool water be sprinkled over this ball of flesh.' "Vaisampayana continued, 'That ball of flesh then, sprinkled over with water, became, in time, divided into a hundred and one parts, each about the size of the thumb. These were then put into those pots full of clarified butter that had been placed at a concealed spot and were watched with care. The illustrious Vyasa then said unto the daughter of Suvala that she should open the covers of the pots after full two years. And having said this and made these arrangements, the wise Dwaipayana went to the Himavat mountains for devoting himself to asceticism.
"Then in time, king Duryodhana was born from among those pieces of the ball of flesh that had been deposited in those pots. According to the order of birth, king Yudhishthira was the oldest. "

Saturday, September 22, 2007

Sun is a Star

Indian astronomers has made the important discovery that the stars visible at night are similar to the Sun visible during day time.
There is an old Sanskrit shloka (couplet) which states "Sarva Dishanaam, Suryaha, Suryaha, Suryaha" which means that there are suns in all directions. This couplet which describes the night sky as full of suns. In other words, it was recognized that the sun is also a star, though the nearest one. This understanding is demonstrated in another Sloka which says that when one sun sinks below the horizon, a thousand suns take its place.

Expanding Universe

The word for universe in Sanskrit is "Brahmanda", which is made by joining of words "Brahma" and "Anda". Brahma is derived from root "Briha" meaning to expand and "Anda" means egg. Thus "Brahmanda" means expanding egg. The universe is described as an egg in most post-vedic scriptures.

"Apah were indeed Salila earlier. Desire arose in it. They labored. From that heat arose. From heat golden egg was born. Golden egg was swimming in that for a year." Shatapatha Brahmana

"Whole universe including moon, sun, galaxies and planets was inside the egg. Egg was surrounded by ten qualities from outside." Vayu Purana 4.72-73

"At the end of thousand years Egg was divided in two by Vayu." Vayu Purana 24.73

"From that golden egg earth and heaven were made." Manusmriti 1.13

In Matsya Purana 2.25-30 following story is told about creation. After Mahapralaya, dissolution of the universe, there was darkness everywhere. Everything was like in a state of sleep. There was nothing, either moving or unmoving. Then Svayambhu, self-being, manifested, which is the form beyond senses. He created water first and established the seed of creation into it.

Friday, September 21, 2007

Duration of the day at poles

Gola 16: The gods living in the north at the Meru mountain (north pole) see one half of the Bhagola (celestial sphere with its centre at the centre of the earth) as revolving from left to right (i.e., clockwise); the demons living in the south at Badvâmukha (south pole) see the other half rotating from right to left (i.e., anti-clockwise).

Gola 17: The gods (at the north pole) see the sun after sunrise for half a solar year; so do the demons (at the south pole). Those living on the moon see the sun for half a lunar month; the humans here see it for half a civil day.


Aryabhata claims that the Earth turns on its own axis and some elements of his planetary epicyclic models rotate at the same speed as the motion of the planet around the Sun. Some interpreters claims that Aryabhata's calculations were based on an underlying heliocentric model in which the planets orbit the Sun.


Aryabhata gave tables of half chords which are now known as sine tables, along with cosine tables. He used zya for sine, kotizya for cosine, and otkram zya for inverse sine, and also introduced the versine.

Brahmagupta used an interpolation formula to compute values of sines, up to the second order of the Newton-Stirling interpolation formula.


The History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent dates back to 1700 BCE. Metals and related concepts were mentioned in various early Vedic age texts. The Rigveda already uses the Sanskrit term Ayas (metal).

The Atharva Veda and the Satapatha Brahmana refer to krsna ayas ("black metal"), which could be iron (but possibly also iron ore and iron items not made of smelted iron).
In the Taittiriya Samhita are references to ayas and at least one reference to smiths.
The Satapatha Brahmana refers to the smelting of metallic ore.
In the Manu Smriti (6.71), the following analogy is found: "For as the impurities of metallic ores, melted in the blast (of a furnace), are consumed, even so the taints of the organs are destroyed through the suppression of the breath."
The Rasa Ratnasamuccaya describes the extraction and use of copper.

The pillar of Delhi, erected by Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375-413), made up of 98% wrought iron of pure quality is a testament to the high level of skill achieved by ancient Indian iron smiths in the extraction and processing of iron. It has attracted the attention of archaeologists and metallurgists as it has withstood corrosion for the last 1600 years, despite harsh weather.

Metallurgists at IIT Kanpur have claimed that a thin layer of "misawite", a compound (amorphous phase d-FeOOH) of iron, oxygen, and hydrogen, has protected the wrought iron pillar from rust.


Measure of time

India has given the idea of the smallest and the largest measure of time.

Krati Krati = 34,000th of a second
1 Truti = 300th of a second
2 Truti = 1 Luv
2 Luv = 1 Kshana
30 Kshana = 1 Vipal
60 Vipal = 1 Pal
60 Pal = 1 Ghadi (24 minutes)
2.5 Gadhi = 1 Hora (1 hour)
24 Hora = 1 Divas (1 day)
7 Divas = 1 saptaah (1 week)
4 Saptaah = 1 Maas (1 month)
2 Maas = 1 Rutu (1 season)
6 Rutu = 1 Varsh (1 year)
100 Varsh = 1 Shataabda (1 century)
10 Shataabda = 1 sahasraabda
432 Sahasraabda = 1 Yug (Kaliyug)

2 Yug = 1 Dwaaparyug 3 Yug = 1 Tretaayug
4 Yug = 1 Krutayug
10 Yug = 1 Mahaayug (4,320,000 years)

1000 Mahaayug = 1 Kalpa
1 Kalpa = 4.32 billion years


The concept of the atom in ancient India derives from the classification of the material world in five basic elements by Indian philosophers.
This classification existed since Vedic times (c. 1500 BCE). The elements were the earth (prithvi), fire (agni), air (vayu), water (jaal) and ether or space (aksha). The elements were associated with human sensory perceptions: smell, touch, vision, taste and ether/space respectively.

Later, Buddhist philosophers replaced ether/space with life, joy and sorrow.
Ancient Indian philosophers believed that all elements except ether were physically palpable and hence comprised of minuscule particles. The smallest particle, which could not be subdivided, was called paramanu in Sanskrit (shortened to parmanu), from parama (ultimate or beyond) and anu (atom). Thus, "paramanu" literally means "beyond atom" and this was a concept at an abstract level which suggested the possibility of splitting atoms, which is now the source of atomic energy.

The 6th century BCE Indian philosopher Kanada was the first person who went deep systematically in such theorization.

Another Indian philosopher, Pakudha Katyayana, a contemporary of Buddha, also propounded the ideas of atomic constitution of the material world. All these were based on logic and philosophy and lacked any empirical basis for want of commensurate technology.

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

Distance from earth to moon

The Surya Siddhanta, a textbook on astronomy of ancient India, calculated the distance from earth to moon as 253,000 miles. The modern measurement is 252,710 miles.

Source :
Surya-Siddhanta: A Text Book of Hindu Astronomy

Diameter of Earth

The Surya Siddhanta, a textbook on astronomy of ancient India - last compiled in 1000 BC, believed by Hindus to be handed down from 3000 BC by aid of complex mnemonic recital methods still known today - computed the earth's diameter to be 7,840 miles,The modern measurement is 7,926.7 miles

Monday, September 17, 2007

Sphericity of Earth

The existence of rather advanced concepts like the sphericity of Earth is explained in Vedic literature.
Aitareya Brahmana (3.44) declares: “The Sun does never set nor rise. When people think the Sun is setting (it is not so). For after having arrived at the end of the day it makes itself produce two opposite effects, making night to what is below and day to what is on the other side…Having reached the end of the night, it makes itself produce two opposite effects, making day to what is below and night to what is on the other side. In fact, the Sun never sets”

In fact the very beginning of the Hindu texts of the Bhaagavata mentions earth as the ‘BhooGola’- meaning the sphere of earth.

Saturday, September 15, 2007

Nuclear weapon

Was the Mahabharata war a nuclear war? Were weapons of mass destruction used in the war? Think twice before dismissing it as an absurd theory.

These are some of the references in Mahabharata (
Musala Parva)

...Gurkha, flying a swift and powerful vimana (fast aircraft) hurled a single projectile Charged with all the power of the Universe.

An incandescent column of smoke and flame
As bright as ten thousand Suns
Rose in all its splendor... was an unknown weapon,
An iron thunderbolt,
A gigantic messenger of death,
Which reduced to ashes
The Entire race of the Vrishnis and thr Andhakas.

...the corpses were so burned
As to be unrecognizable.
Their hair and nails fell out;
Pottery broke without apparent cause,
And the birds turned white.

After a few hours
All foodstuffs were infected...

...To escape from this fire
The soldiers threw themselves in streams
To wash themselves and their equipment...

Cats were born of bitches, and mouse of the mongoose (Genetic Defects due to radiation?)

Oppenheimer, the architect of modern atomic bomb who was in charge of the Manhattan project was asked by a student after the Manhattan explosion,
“How do you feel after having exploded the first atomic bomb on earth”.
Oppenheimer’s reply for the question was ,
“not first atomic bomb, but first atomic bomb in modern times”.

Excavations of Mohen Jo Daro in North India revealed towns which had been completely destroyed quite unexpectedly!! There were no traces of natural disasters or wars! Scientists Davneport and Vincenti put forward a theory saying the ruins were of a nuclear blast as they found big stratums of clay and green glass. High temperature melted clay and sand and they hardened immediately afterwards. Similar stratums of green glass can also found in Nevada deserts after every nuclear explosion.

A heavy layer of radioactive ash in Rajasthan, India, covers a three-square mile area, ten miles west of Jodhpur. Scientists are investigating the site, where a housing development was being built.

Speed of light

Sayana (1315-1387) was a minister in the court of King Bukka I of the Vijayanagar Empire in South India; he was also a great Vedic scholar. In his commentary on the fourth verse of the hymn 1.50 of the Rig Veda on the sun, he says:

Tatha cha smaryate yojananam sahasre dve dve shate dve cha yogane ekena nimishardhena kramamana namo ‘stu ta iti

Thus it is remembered: (O Sun), bow to you, you who travers 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesha.

Unit of Time: Nimesa
The Moksha dharma parva of Shanti Parva in Mahabharata describes Nimisha as follows:
15 Nimisha = 1 Kastha

30 Kashta = 1 Kala
30.3 Kala = 1 Muhurta
30 Muhurtas = 1 Diva-Ratri (Day-Night)

We know Day-Night is 24 hours So we get 24 hours = 30 x 30.3 x 30 x 15 nimisha

in other words 409050 nimisha

We know 1 hour = 60 x 60 = 3600 seconds

So 24 hours = 24 x 3600 seconds = 409050 nimisha
409050 nimesa = 86,400 seconds
1 nimesa = 0.2112 seconds (This is a recursive decimal! Wink of an eye=.2112 seconds!)
1/2 nimesa = 0.1056 seconds

Unit of Distance:
Yojana is defined in Chapter 6 of Book 1 of the ancient vedic text “Vishnu Purana” as follows
10 Paramáńus = 1 Parasúkshma
10 Parasúkshmas = 1 Trasareńu
10 Trasareńus = 1 Mahírajas (particle of dust)
10 Mahírajasas = 1 Bálágra (hair’s point)
10 Bálágras = 1 Likhyá
10 Likhyás= 1 Yúka
10 Yúkas = 1 Yavodara (heart of barley)
10 Yavodaras = 1 Yava (barley grain of middle size)
10 Yava = 1 Angula (finger, or inch)
6 fingers = 1 Pada (the breadth of it)
2 Padas = 1 Vitasti (span)
2 Vitasti = 1 Hasta (cubit)
4 Hastas = a Dhanu, a Danda, or pauruSa (a man’s height), or 2 Nárikás = 6 feet
2000 Dhanus = 1 Gavyúti (distance to which a cow’s call or lowing can be heard) = 12000 feet
4 Gavyútis = 1 Yojana = 9.09 miles


So now we can calculate what is the value of the speed of light in modern units based on the value given as 2202 yojanas in 1/2 nimesa = 2202 x 9.09 miles per 0.1056 seconds = 20016.18 miles per 0.1056 seconds = 189547 miles per second !!

The speed of light is 186282.397 miles per second as per modern estimates.


THE GRAND ANICUT, KALLANAI, believed to be the Oldest Dam in the World, is still in use today. It is located on the Cauvery River, 24 km from Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu.

This masonry dam was built in the 2nd Century by Chola King Karikalan and is 1,082 feet long with a maximum height of 18 feet and is 40-60 feet wide. It was remodeled and fitted with sluice gates in 1899-1902. India had more land under irrigation in ancient times than it does today.

Electric battery

The ancient text of Agastya Samhita describes the method of making electric battery, and that water can be split into oxygen and hydrogen.

"Sansthapya Mrinmaya Patre
Tamrapatram Susanskritam
Chhadyechhikhigriven Chardrarbhih
Dastaloshto Nidhatavyah
Sanyogajjayte Tejo

"Place a well-cleaned copper plate in an earthenware vessel. Cover it first by copper sulfate and then by moist sawdust. After that, put a mercury-amalgamated zinc sheet on top of the sawdust to avoid polarization. The contact will produce an energy known by the twin name of Mitra-Varuna. Water will be split by this current into Pranavayu and Udanavayu. A chain of one hundred jars is said to give a very effective force. (p. 422)"

When a cell was prepared according to Agastya Samhita and measured, it gives open circuit voltage as 1.138 volts, and short circuit current as 23 mA.

Anen Jalbhangosti Prano Daneshu
Evam Shatanam

Iif we use the power of 100 earthen pots on water, then water will change its form into life-giving oxygen and floating hydrogen.

Vayubandhakvastren Nibaddho
Udanah Swalaghutve

If hydrogen is contained in an air tight cloth, it can be used in aerodynamics, i.e. it will fly in air.

Universal Time Scale

In Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna tells Arjuna:

"All the worlds from Brahma's world (the universe) are periodic. Arjuna.
They, those who know the day and night, know that the day of Brahma is a thousand yugas long and a night is a thousand yugas long.
From the unmanifested, all the manifest things spring forth on the arrival of the day (of Brahma). On the onset of night all these sink into what is called the unmanifested.
Partha, (Arjuna), this multitude of created things having existed over and over again and helplessly destroyed at the onset of night, spring forth on the onset of day."

All this sounds a lot like the modern theory of an oscillating universe that begins with a big bang that sends all matter flying out until it comes to a halt and collapses back into a tiny speck, leading to another big bang, and so on. An entire cycle according to present-day cosmological ideas could take 10,000million to 20,000 million years. It seems incredible that the ancient Hindus could hit upon this idea thousands of years ago. Some scholars have tended to dismiss this agreement of the order of length of the cycle as a mere coincidence.

Seven colours in sun light

"Seven horses draw the chariot of Surya". Rg Veda 5. 45. 9 is obviously referring to the seven colours comprising sunlight


The Vishnu Purana gives an accurate description of the phenomenon of "tides":

"In all the oceans the water remains at all times the same in quantity and never increases or diminishes; but like the water in a cauldron, which in consequence of its combination with heat, expands, so the waters of the ocean swell with the increase of the Moon. The waters, although really neither more nor less, dilate or contract as the Moon increases or wanes in the light and dark fortnights."

Pluto not a planet

Western astrology used Pluto as a planet while Pluto was always out of Indian astrology and we do not use it in our calculations. This is the practice from the days of Aryabhatta and Varahamihira.
Indian astrology is mathematically concerned with the nine planets, two of which are Rahu and Ketu that are nothing but derivatives from the diameter of the Earth, which is a circle having a value Pi (22/7) imbedded in the equator of earth.


Tuesday, September 11, 2007


Ayurveda is the oldest known system of Medicine in the world and traces its root to ancient India (1500 B.C). The word Ayurveda derived its name from the Sanskrit words, Ayur(life) and Veda(knowledge/Science) and is commonly referred as ‘The science of Life.’

Our Oriental Heritage (The Story of Civilization, Vol.1) (Our Oriental Heritage)


The game of Chess originated in India. The Persian word for chess, shatranj, is derived from the Sanskrit word chaturanga which means "four divisions of the military" ( infantry, cavalry, elephants and chariots), represented respectively by pawn, knight, bishop and rook.

Friday, September 7, 2007


According to Gemological Institute of America ,India was the only source for diamonds in the world until 1896.


Representing a complete system of social, physical, mental and spiritual development; the origins of yoga date to some 5,000 years ago in the Indus-Sarasvati civilization of northern India. The first references to the history of yoga can be found in the Rig Veda.

Sidereal Year

Bhaskara (12th century) accurately calculated the time taken for the Earth to orbit the Sun, as 365.2588 days. The modern accepted measurement, calculated with sophisticated instruments is 365.2596 days, a difference of just one minute. Impeccable accuracy, considering he calculated with naked eye.


The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world is believed to have studies there.


Sushruta [ 6th century BC] was the world's first surgeon. His book "Sushruta Samhita" describes over 120 surgical instruments, 300 surgical procedures and classifies human surgery in 8 categories. He is know as the "Father of surgery" and even performed plastic surgery and "cosmetc surgery".

Binary System

Pingala developed a numbering system very similar to what we refer to as the binary system used in computers.He described the binary numeral system in connection with the listing of Vedic meters with short and long syllables.

Martial Arts

Kalarippayattu is the oldest martial art in the world.
The earliest mention of the concept "marmam" (A term used in Kalarippayattu : pressure points of the human body) dates back to the Rig Veda where Indra is said to have defeated Vritra by attacking his marmam with his vajra.
References to marman is also found in the Atharva Veda
The Chinese martial art Shaolin chuan traces its ancestry to Bodhi Dharma, an Indian Buddhist monk who was a Kalaripayattu expert.


The Hindu mythology is stuffed with stories of people flying. The story of Sita's abduction by Ravana in a pushpaka vimana for instance.
The Rigveda mentions "mechanical birds".
kṛṣṇáṃ niyânaṃ hárayaḥ suparṇâ / apó vásānā dívam út patanti
tá âvavṛtran sádanād ṛtásyâd / íd ghṛténa pṛthivî vy ùdyate
48. dvâdaśa pradháyaś cakrám ékaṃ / trîṇi nábhyāni ká u tác ciketa
tásmin sākáṃ triśatâ ná śaṅkávo / 'rpitâḥ ṣaṣṭír ná calācalâsaḥ
In Mahabaratha too there are instances of flying crafts being used in warfare.
Whether or not these were truly man made aircrafts is debatable. Some may say this is just the imagination of the author or even a more bizarre claim that they were flying saucers.

The Vaimanika Shastra ("Science of Aeronautics") is a Sanskrit text on aeronautics, discussing construction of vimanas, the "chariots of the gods", mythical self-moving aerial cars in the Sanskrit epics.
The existence of the text was revealed in 1952 by G. R. Josyer, according to whom it is due to one Pandit Subbaraya Shastry, who dictated it in 1918-1923. A Hindi translation was published in 1959, the Sanskrit text with an English translation in 1973. It has 3000 shlokas in 8 chapters and is was attributed by Shastry to Maharishi Bharadvaja.


George Gheverghese Joseph from The University of Manchester claims to have uncovered evidence that Indian scholars described the infinite series, a cornerstone of calculus, 250 years before Newton and Leibniz. There is also evidence that this discovery may have been transmitted to Europeans at the time by traveling Jesuit scholars.

Decimal System

It is widely believed that weights used by the Indus Valley (2500 BC) followed a binary system and measurement based on the decimal system.

Theory of Gravitation

Bhaskaracharya has mentioned about force of attraction resembling gravity, in book titled Sidhanta Shiromani,discovered centuries later by Newton.

In response to the critics of the
theory of "spherical earth"["If such were the case, stones would and trees would fall from the earth."], Brahmagupta said..

"On the contrary, if that were the case, the earth would not vie in keeping an even and uniform pace with the minutes of heaven, the pranas of the times. [...] All heavy things are attracted towards the center of the earth. [...] The earth on all its sides is the same; all people on earth stand upright, and all heavy things fall down to the earth by a law of nature, for it is the nature of the earth to attract and to keep things, as it is the nature of water to flow, that of fire to burn, and that of wind to set in motion… The earth is the only low thing, and seeds always return to it, in whatever direction you may throw them away, and never rise upwards from the earth."


Aryabhata[476 AD] had stated that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight. Thus the lunar eclipse occurs when the moon enters into the earth's shadow and explains in detail the size and extent of this shadow. He also computed the size of the eclipsed part during eclipses. Indian computations of the duration of the lunar eclipse of 1765-08-30 was short by 41 seconds, whereas charts by Tobias Mayer, 1752 were long by 68 seconds. Aryabhata's computation of Earth's circumference as 24,835 miles, which was only 0.2% smaller than the actual value of 24,902 miles.

Motions of the Solar System

Aryabhata [476 AD] had discovered earth rotates about its axis. He has clearly calculated the movement of planets and their positions relative to uniformly moving points


Aryabhata [476 AD]
Aryabhata found the area of triangle as
"tribhujasya phalashariram samadalakoti bhujardhasamvargah"
Which can be translated as
"In a triangle the area is the result of a perpendicular with the half-side"

Pi (π) and Approximation

Aryabhata [476 AD] worked on the approximation for Pi (π), and proved π is irrational.

He calculated π= ~ 62832/20000 = 3.1416, correct to five digits. The word āsanna (approaching), has been used, clearly suggesting that he not only knew that is this an approximation, but also the value is irrational).
It is to be noted that irrationality of pi was proved in Europe only in 1761 by Lambert.

Zero (0)

Aryabhata [476 AD] was the first to use number place system and zero.The concept of zero originated from Indian philosophy's concept of "sunya", literally "void".

More about Zero:
Zero: The Biography of a Dangerous Idea

Pythagorean Theorem

Baudhayana Shrauta Sutra by Baudhayana (800BC) has detailed explanation of the Pythagorean theorem for an isosceles right triangle,Pythagorean triples discovered algebraically, and the statement of the Pythagorean theorem.

Baudhāyana Sulba Sutra says:

dīrghasyākṣaṇayā rajjuH pārśvamānī, tiryaDaM mānī,
cha yatpṛthagbhUte kurutastadubhayāṅ karoti.

A rope stretched along the length of the diagonal produces an area which the vertical and horizontal sides make together.

Baudhayana also provides a non-axiomatic demonstration using a rope measure of the reduced form of the Pythagorean theorem for an isosceles right triangle: The cord which is stretched across a square produces an area double the size of the original square.

Apastamba Sulba Sutra (600BC) too has detailed explanation of the theorem.

Pythagoras is believed to have used algebraic methods to construct Pythagorean triples sometime during 569–475 BC.

Small Pox Vaccination

Indians had mastered a vaccination technique for small pox way before the Europeans did. An year-old live smallpox matter was used for the vaccination. British doctor J Z Holwell described how safe and effective the procedure was, in his book [1767].
The "cowpox" technique of vaccination was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1798. The British is believed to have banned the Indian technique after the "cowpox method" gained popularity in Europe, in spite of the fact that it was less effective.

India Tracts

Radiotelegraph Technology

Guglielmo Marconi an Italian Inventor is widely believed to have invented the radiotelegraph for which he won the Nobel prize for Physics in 1909.

Jagadish Chandra Bose
had conducted the public demonstration of the technology at Kolakata in 1895 while Marconi's wireless signaling experiment in England was on May 1897.
Bose was never particularly interested in patenting his inventions.
Bose’s has now been credited with the invention of the first wireless detection device and millimeter length electromagnetic waves and is now considered a pioneer in the field of biophysics.